American Society of Civil Engineers. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes with Plane and Wedge Failure by Means of a Pocket Calculator. Geotechnical & Geological Engineering This investigation may be carried out quickly, without time consuming calculations, even at the site, if a programmable pocket electronic calculator is available. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. Traditionally, rock slope stability analyses are performed to determine the economic design of manmade or natural slopes. Hoek, E. and Bray, J. Plane failure analysis of rock slopes: A reliability approach. The basic formula may in both cases also be used to make a detailed parametric study to investigate the sensitivity of the rock slope construction to variations in individual parameters. A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of anchors to ensure the safety of rock masses endangered by slides. Please check your username and password and try again. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. (1981) Rock Slope Engineering, The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London. Limit analysis of seismic slope stability based on tension-shear failure mechanism. At the time of failure, the shear strength of the soil is fully mobilized along the failure plane. The application of Goodman and Bray's limit equilibrium analysis of multi-block toppling failures to these three slopes is demonstrated. The Barton-Bandis nonlinear failure criterion and the limit equilibrium principle were adopted to account for the nonlinear characteristics of rock joint shear strength and safety factor of slope, respectively. ±20°). In this manner the engineer can obtain a good idea of the sensitivity of the rock slope construction to changes in the individual parameters. The shear strength is represented by the Mohr-Coulomb criteria: τ= c The application of Goodman and Bray's limit equilibrium analysis of multi-block failures to these three slopes is demonstrated. The orientation and spacing of the discontinuities plane with respect to the slope face are the determinants of rock slope failure. Paper presented at the The 16th U.S Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 1975. 1. ... • Analysis of this type of failure is very complex and rarely done. As shown on Figures 1 and 2, at the right hand side the failure has occurred along a bedding plane. Die Aufdeckung einer formalen Analogie zwischen dem Abgleiten auf einer Ebene und dem Abgleiten eines Felskeiles auf zwei Ebenen erlaubt es, die einfache Grundformel des ebenen Problems direkt für die Lösung des verwickelten räumlichen Problems anzuwenden. - 213.144.97.145. Modes of failure in rock slopes (after Hoek and Bray [1]). For highly fractured rock, the original HB failure criterion has been modified, but its effect on the stability of rock slopes has not been studied. Dans cet exposé figure un programme complet pour le modèle très répandu: le "Hewlett-Packard HP-65". Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. A probabilistic analysis will provide you with a safety factor distribution and a probability of failure. Stability of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surface ... • Rapidly moving mass of material (rock or soil) that travels mostly through the air with little or no interaction between moving unit and another. The discovery of a formal analogy between the plane failure problem and that of wedge failure on two intersecting plane surfaces makes it possible to use the basic formula also for the solution of the complicated three-dimensional wedge problem. Quelques exemples illustrent l'application à des cas concrets. Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure … Anhand einiger Beispiele wird die Anwendung auf praktische Fälle des Felsbaues illustriert. methods of stability analysis of slopes of finite height 30 31. 2.6 Mechanism of rock slope failure under self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force. 1-6. L'influence de la cohésion y figure explicitement, celle de la géométrie, de l'angle de frottement et du coefficient de sécurité y apparaissent implicitement dans deux facteurs. Part of Springer Nature. Geotech Geol Eng 13, 105–111 (1995). In: The 89th International Symposium on Rock Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol. Fig. Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. analysis for rock slopes and also calculating factor of safety values for plane and wedge failures based on the limit equilibrium theory. Despite the simplicity of the mathematical model, the necessary computations using present methods are time consuming on account of the large number of parameters entering into the computations (geometrical parameters, material properties, anchor forces etc.) Kinematic Analysis: Kinematic analysis is a method used to analyze the potential for the various modes of rock slope failures (plane, wedge, toppling failures), that occur due to … Kovari, K., and P. Fritz. On a découvert une analogie formelle entre le glissement sur un plan et le glissement d'un coin de roche le long de deux plans. Diese Untersuchungen können rasch und ohne langwierige Rechnungen selbst im Felde durchgeführt werden, wenn ein programmierbarer Taschenrechner zur Verfügung steht. Vancouver, 2016, 77–90: 11: G Liu, X Zhuang, Z Cui. Factor of safety is the shear strength at the time of failure τ f compared to the stress acting at that plane τm. Event. The quantitative determination of the stability of slopes is necessary in a number of engineering activities, such as: (a) the design of earth dams and embankments, (b) the analysis of stability of natural slopes, (c) analysis of the stability of excavated slopes, (d) analysis of deepseated failure of foundations and retaining walls. Dans les deux cas, la formule de dimensionnement permet aussi la réalisation d'une vaste analyse paramétrique pour déterminer la sensibilité de la construction à la variation des paramètres individuels. The 16th U.S Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics. In the following sections a method is developed which does away with these disadvantages and consequently substantially simplifies the design of rock slopes. If FS = 1, then the slope is in critical condition. & Anbalagan, R. Plane failure analysis of rock slopes. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Roorkee, 247 667, Roorkee, India, S. Sharma, T. K. Raghuvanshi & R. Anbalagan, You can also search for this author in 1. The stratified rock of Jurassic strata is widely distributed in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Kinematic Analysis – Planar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane on which sliding occurs must strike near parallel to the slope face (within approx. Publisher. Slopes lose strength over time through numerous events and certain lithologies lend itself more to specific types of failure. The original Hoek-Brown (HB) failure criterion was used to analyse the stability of rock slopes. Well developed joint planes comprise the other part of the failure … Dans le cas du problème plan, on a mis au point une formule fondamentale pour le dimensionnement des ancrages qui doivent retenir une masse rocheuse susceptible de glisser. The application of the method is illustrated in several practical examples of the design of rock slopes. Der Einfluss der Kohäsion kommt dabei explizit zum Ausdruck, die Einflüsse der Geometrie, des Reibungswinkels und des Sicherheitsfaktors treten in zwei Faktoren zusammengefasst in Erscheinung. Rock Slope Failure. "Stability Analysis Of Rock Slopes For Plane And Wedge Failure With The Aid Of A Programmable Pocket Calculator." You could not be signed in. Hoek and Bray (1981) gave an analytical approach for plane failure analysis for rock slopes that is limited to those slopes in which the upper slope surface is horizontal and the tension crack is vertical. Permission to Distribute - American Rock Mechanics Association. The wedges are usually four or ﬁve sided. (a) Plane, (b) wedge, (c) circular and (d) toppling -sliding. The limit equilibrium method is generally utilized in the stability analysis of rock slope with single failure plane. The primary objective of slope stability analysis is to identify potential failure mechanisms and endangered areas. Die Bemessungsformel dient in beiden Fällen auch zur Durchführung einer umfangreichen Parameteranalyse um die Empfindlichkeit der Konstruktion auf die Variation der einzelnen Parameter zu ermitteln. These slopes often include open-pit mining, embankments, road cuts, landfills, and excavations. The most important types of slope failure are illustrated in Fig.1. R. Anbalagan. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " A modified pseudo-dynamic approach was used for a reliability-based stability analysis of plane failure rock slopes. A complete program is given in this paper for the widely used "Hewlett- Packard HP 65" pocket calculator. Fig. (1995). further analysis of the stability of a rock mass has tended Aoalysis to use traces of typical discontinuities on a spherical Following Hoek and Bray (1981), we consider a first projection rather than pi diagrams; examples may be site where a wedge is formed by two plane disconti- seen in … Fig. 16th U.S. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. volume 13, pages105–111(1995)Cite this article. In dieser Arbeit ist ein vollständiges Programm für das weitverbreitete Modell "Hewlett-Packard HP-65" angegeben. Avec une calculatrice électronique programmable, ces investigations peuvent être faites à la fois rapidement et sans calculs fastidieux sur le terrain-même. Symposium on Rock Mechanics. Anhand einiger Beispiele wird die Anwendung auf praktische Fälle des Felsbaues illustriert. Subscription will auto renew annually. The common methods for the analysis of a slope’s stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. 9, No. Priest (1985) investigated the prediction of unstable block or wedge by the use of stereographic rotation plane. non-associative character of toppling-sliding rock slope failures, examples of experimental data were chosen from the rock mech-anics literature to address (iii). Varying the tension crack from vertical to 70° only has an effect when the upper slope angle is less than 20°. Kinematic Analysis Kinematic Analysis –– Planar Rock Slope FailurePlanar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane … The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). and in the three dimensional case somewhat complicated. Toppling failure has not been considered, under which circumstances the simple resolution of forces together with the Coulomb failure hypothesis on the sliding plane are sufficient to arrive at a solution of the problem. Plane failure analysis The potentially unstable regions in rock slopes consist of some wedges. 24 3.1 Geometry of slope exhibiting plane failure: (a) cross-section of the rock slope with a plane failure situation; and (b) release surfaces at ends of plane failure. Hoek and Bray (1981) gave an analytical approach for plane failure analysis for rock slopes that is limited to those slopes in which the upper slope surface is horizontal and the tension crack is vertical. The rock mass which is subject to potential sliding failure is assumed to be a rigid body and the stability analysis is carried out using the method of limit equilibrium analysis. REFERENCES Search for other works by this author on: 1975. Sharma, S., Raghuvanshi, T.K. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. 16th U.S. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00421876, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Correspondence to The rock is variably weathered, as shown by the brown colours in Figures 1 and 2. Ceci permet d'appliquer directement la formule fondamentale, du problème plan, qui est simple, à la résolution du problème enchevêtré qui se présente dans l'espace. The first failure occurred in a 20 m high granite slope that was stabilized by removing the top 6 m and installing a number of tensioned rock anchors in the toe. You do not currently have access to this content. An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. HISTORY Petterson (1955) first applied the circle method to the analysis of a soil failure in connection with the failure of a quarry wall in Goeteberg, Sweden. Für die Bemessung der Ankerkräfte zur Sicherung einer gleitgefährdeten Felsmasse wird für das ebene Problem eine Grundformel hergeleitet. Summary. The UDEC analysis per- formed by Lorig & Varona (2001) predicts a failure mechanism with a … The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to analyze the rock slopes. failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. Failure could arise from a single discontinuity, a pair of … This site uses cookies. Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … It is found that varying the angle of the upper slope from 0° to 30° causes a significant reduction in the factor of safety. bridge along the sliding surface in the plane failure and wedge failure analysis. Introduction. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. However, the stratified rock slope cannot be accurately estimated by this method because of different bedding planes and their variable shear strength parameters. An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. 3 shows examples of computed daylight envelopes for a family of east-sloping rock faces with slopes in 58 increments. Stability of Slopes Introduction. Gravitational and seepage forces tend to cause instability in natural slopes, in slopes formed by excavation and in the slopes of embankments and earth dams. As an alternative to computer drafting, Fig. Plane failure is a simple mode of failure in rock s lopes, however due to com plexity in geometry, variability in discontinuity characteristics, uneven distribution of water forces within the slope, 2. 5.1Example 1 – plane failure of slope with daylighting discontinuities The first example involves a set of discontinuities spaced 10m apart, which dip out of the slope at 35° (see Figures 2a to 2c). Plane failure in rock slopes is relatively a simple mode of failure, however it may involve complex failure mechanism owing to its complex geometry (Yoon et al., 2002), heterogeneity in geology, non-planer potential failure plane, variability in shear-strength along the potential failure plane (Tang et al., 2016), uneven distribution of the water forces (Ahmadi and Eslami, 2011), surcharge (Shukla et al., … In this type of failure, the failure plane is predetermined. The cohesional strength component appears explicitly in the formula, while the geometrical parameters, the friction angle and the safety factor are included in only two factors, kt and k2. ROCK SLOPES PROCESSES AND RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR ANALYSIS A. K. Alzo'ubi College of Engineering, Abu Dhabi University, UAE ABSTRACT: The stability of rock slopes is of great concern in many engineering projects, for example, road cuts, foundations, retaining walls, and dam excavation Generally, rock slopes susceptible to instability could be divided into two main categories, the … 27 3.2 Anchored rock … 1, pp. 2. The first failure occurred in a 20 m high granite slope that was stabilized by removing the top 6 m and installing a number of tensioned rock anchors in the toe. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, Special Contribution Slope Stability With Plane, Wedge And Polygonal Sliding Surfaces, Application of block theory to rock slope stability studies, Wedge Failure Analysis of a Rock Slope In Himalayas. Slope failures in the quarry are controlled by rock structure. PubMed Google Scholar. 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