[76] He told his courtiers, "I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying",[77] and expressed regret at his treatment of his wife. Many members feared that he had intended to use the standing army to suppress dissent or impose Catholicism. He became known as the merry monarch. He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. [49] Louis was to provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress those who opposed the conversion. Robbins, C. (Cambridge, 1938)Google Scholar; The Parliamentary Diary of Sir Edward Dering, 1670–3, ed. Non-academic authors have concentrated mainly on his social and cultural world, emphasising his charm, affability, worldliness, tolerance, turning him into one of the most popular of all English monarchs in novels, plays and films.[87]. 27 Grey, , Debates, V, 277–86Google Scholar; Temple, , Memoirs, pp. 24 Reresby, , Memoirs, p. 112Google Scholar; SirTemple, W., Memoirs, 1675–9 (London, 1692), p. 277Google Scholar; Cal. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. Although Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses, he left no legitimate children and was succeeded by his Catholic brother James. 93 Grey, , Debates, II, 202, 204Google Scholar. }, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, and bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognisable genre. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. In the body of this essay the events and disputes that led to this situation will be explored fully. 49 Grey, , Debates, III, 307Google Scholar. P.R.O., Baschet, 129, 144; C.J., IX, 287; Grey, , Debates, V, 3, 102; VII, 265–7Google Scholar. 1687 His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children,[83] many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. Charles I James II Conflicts with Parliament. [60] The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria;[61] judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed. In 1670, Charles, seeking to solve his financial troubles, agreed to the Treaty of Dover, under which Louis XIV would pay him £160,000 each year. 338–40, 343–9, 35–5. Professor Ronald Hutton summarises the polarised historiography: For the past hundred years, books on Charles II have been sharply divided into two categories. Other kings had inspired more respect, but perhaps only Henry VIII had endeared himself to the popular imagination as much as this one. (3 vols., Camden Soc., 1884– 1885), III, 131 (Lauderdale)Google Scholar; Essex Papers, ed. Danby had publicly professed that he was hostile to France, but had reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes. However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. 87 Ibid., V, 77; VII, 266 (quoted); VIII, 187; H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar. "relatedCommentaries": true, King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. 12 Grey, , Debates, IV, 169Google Scholar. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. Feature Flags: { In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. [10], On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell. S. P. [46] The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America. "metrics": true, (2013). Under Charles II and his brother, who succeeded him as James II in 1685, the ‘normal’ relationship between kings and Parliaments was, in theory, restored. [54] In 1670, Charles granted control of the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin to the Hudson's Bay Company by royal charter, and named the territory Rupert's Land, after his cousin Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the company's first Governor. [62], Later in 1678, Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason. ), P.R.O., Baschet, 117). Her close reading of the Kings’ speeches in chapter three however is a very valuable exercise. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. The anniversary of the Restoration (which was also Charles's birthday)—29 May—was recognised in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell. Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. 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